RSS

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[edit] RSS Technology: A Boon for Information Updating

[edit] Introduction

Globalisation makes earth in a vulnerable condition in the field of business, inforamtion and power. Often overload or abundance of information also creats problem for the users to agreat extent. Presently, flow knowledge is that of an ocean. Therefore, no single mechanism or source can satisfy the users’ desire for information. But, information providers, seekers, and computer technocrates land their constant efforts to devise new techniques and tools to process, arrange, dissemiante, and share information from a cognigible platform to those who need. RSS technology helps to provide latest information to the users through internet. Think about all of the information that one accesses on the Web on a day-to-day basis such as news headlines, search results, “What’s New”, job vacancies, and so forth [1]. A large amount of this content can be thought of as a list; although there are not probaly in HTML {list) elements, the information is list-oriented. Most people often need to track a number of these lists, but it becomes difficult once there are more than a handful of sources. This is because, one has to go to each page, load it, remember how it’s formatted, and find where he/she last left off in the list. RSS is an XML-based format that allows the syndication of lists of hyperlinks, along with other information, or metadata, that helps viewers decide, whether he/she wants to follow the link. This allows peoples’ computers to fetch and understand the information, so that all of the lists they’re interested in, can be tracked and personalized for them. It is a format that’s intended for use by computers on behalf of people, rather than being directly presented to them (like HTML). To enable this, a Web site will make a feed, or channel, available just like any other file or resource on the server. Once a feed is available, computers can regularly fetch the file to get the most recent items on the list. Most often, people will do this with an aggregator, a program that manages a number of lists and presents them in a single interface. Feeds can also be used for other kinds of list-oriented information, such as syndicating the content itself (often weblogs) along with the links.

[edit] RSS: The Concept

RSS is a family of web-feed formats used to publish frequently the updated digital content, such as blogs, news feeds or podcasts. Users of RSS content use programs called, feed 'readers' or 'aggregators': the user 'subscribes' to a feed by supplying to their reader a link to the feed; the reader can then check the user's subscribed feeds to see, if any of those feeds have new content since the last time it checked, and if so, retrieve that content and present it to the user [2]

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The initials "RSS" are variously used to refer to the following standards: · Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) · Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91, RSS 1.0) · RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9 and 1.0)

RSS formats are specified in XML (a generic specification for data formats). RSS delivers its information as an XML file called an "RSS feed", "webfeed", "RSS stream", or "RSS channel"[2].

[edit] Growth of RSS

[edit] Pre-RSS Formats

Before RSS, several similar formats already existed for syndication, but none achieved widespread popularity or are still in common use today, as most were envisioned to work only with a single service. These originated from push and pull technologies. Two of the earliest examples are, Backweb and Pointcast.Between 1995 and 1997, Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple Computer's Advanced Technology Group developed the Meta Content Framework (MCF). MCF was a specification for structuring metadata information about web sites and other data, and the basis of Project X, a 3D flythrough visualizer for the web. When the research project was discontinued, Guha left Apple for Netscape, where he adapted MCF to use XML and created the first version of the Resource Description Framework (RDF). In 1997, Microsoft created Channel Definition Format (CDF) for the Active Channel feature of Internet Explorer 4.0, which never became popular. This was probably due to CDF being focused on commercial application of the concept and the extensive resources it required at a time when people were mostly on dial-up. Backweb and Pointcast were geared towards news, much like a personal API feed. Backweb later morphed into providing software updates, a precursor to the push update features used by various companies now. Dave Winer also designed his own XML syndication format for use on his Scripting news weblog, which was also introduced in 1997 [3].

[edit] RSS Creation: A Chronological Evolution

The first version of RSS (version RSS 0.9) as RDF site summary Created by Ramanathan V. Guha of Netscape in March 1997 for use on the My Netscape portal [4] Prototype RSS 0.91 Dan Libby produced a prototype tentatively named RSS 0.91 in 1997[5] Redsigned Netscape Portal April 2001, redesigned of My Netscape Portal removed RSS/XML support Modified version of RSS 1.0 December 2000, RSS-DEV group went on to produce [6] RSS 0.92 Viner release this version [7] RSS 0.93 Released in April 2001 [8] Naming Really Simple Syndication (RSS) RSS 0.92, known as RSS 2.0 and emphasizing "Really Simple Syndication" as the meaning of the three-letter abbreviation in September 2002 RSS 2.0 Were released in 2002 November 2002 The New York Times began offering its readers the ability to subscribe to RSS news feeds related to various topics. Ownership Demad Winer and Userland Software assigned ownership of the RSS 2.0 specification to his then workplace [9] RSS 1.1 [preliminary draft was produced] In January 2005, Sean B. Palmer, Christopher Schmidt, and Cody Woodard produced a preliminary draft of RSS 1.1 [10] Safari 2.0m with RSS Feed April 2005 Apple Computer released Simple Sharing Extension In November 2005, Microsoft proposed its Simple Sharing Extensions to RSS [11] DDT has been restored In January 2007, as part of a revitalization of Netscape by AOL, the FQDN for my.netscape.com was redirected to a holding page in preparation for an impending relaunch, and as a result some news feeders using RSS 0.91 stopped working. The DTD has again been restored.

[edit] Usage

Programs known as feed readers or aggregators can check a list of feeds on behalf of a user and display any updated articles that they find. It is common to find web feeds on major websites and many smaller ones. Some websites let people choose between RSS or Atom formatted web feeds; others offer only RSS or only Atom. Followings are some sercvices which are provided by RSS [2]:

[edit] Client Side News Readers

RSS-aware programs are available for various operating systems. Client-side readers and aggregators are typically constructed as standalone programs or extensions to existing programs such as web browsers and Email readers. Many browsers have integrated support for RSS feeds. There also are other applications that can convert an RSS feed into several usenet articles, viewable through the major newsreader software such as Mozilla Thunderbird or Forté Agent.

[edit] Web Based Newsreaders

Web-based feed readers and news aggregators such as NewsGator Online require no software installation and make the user's ‘feeds’ available on any computer with Web access. Some aggregators combine existing web feeds into new feeds, e.g., taking all football related items from several sports feeds and providing a new football feed. There are also search engines for content published via web feeds like Bloglines.

[edit] Feed Representation

On Web pages, web feeds (RSS or Atom) are typically linked with the word "Subscribe", an orange square, , or a rectangle with the letters or . Many news aggregators such as My Yahoo! publish subscription buttons for use on Web pages to simplify the process of adding news feeds.

[edit] What is in a Feed?

A feed contains a list of items or entries, each of which is identified by a link. Each item can have any amount of other metadata associated with it as well. The most basic metadata for an entry includes a title for the link and a description of it; when syndicating news headlines, these fields might be used for the story title and the first paragraph or a summary, for instance.

Additionally, the feed itself can have metadata associated with it, so that it can be given a title (e.g., “Bob’s News Headlines”), description, and other fields like publisher and copyright terms.

[edit] How to Use RSS?

One needs a feed reader - this is a tool like an email program. It’s like getting an email every time one of ones subscriptions updates his content, no email address is required. There are many feed readers - some are online (like a webmail account), some are offline (client download the program to his computer), some are free and some aren’t. One might have come across feed readers already, if he uses personalised home page services like My Yahoo or My MSN, he must have got a feed reader already - that’s how content like news, weather and stock quotes appear on one’s personal page. One can also add content from any site with feeds to his page to get updates. Other web-based tools are primarily dedicated to feed reading only. One of the most popular web-based feed readers at this point is Bloglines, which is also free and easy to get started with. If one uses the Firefox browser, he can also receive feeds from his tool bar by using the Live Bookmarks function. The next version of Internet Explorer will add this feature as well. Finally, there are desktop-based feed readers, e.g Newsgator and Feed Demon, these are like an email program for web feeds. Attensa for Outlook is a feed reader that puts the feeds in Outlook. One can look for the feed reader that, best suits his own needs at the RSS Compendium.

[edit] How to Add Feeds to client’s Feed Reader?

Not all websites currently provide feeds, but it is growing rapidly in popularity and many sites (not just blogs), including the Guardian, New York Times and CNN now provide it. First, look for the subscription or feed options. Many websites have links labelled ‘XML’, ‘RSS’ or ‘Atom’; or they may have an orange button. Then, one can either click the relevant links (e.g. the ‘add to my Yahoo!’ button, if user is using My Yahoo!) or copy-paste the link in to his feed reader. Sometimes, there will be a button for his particular feed reader on the blog that will take the user to the appropriate subscription page.

[edit] Web Feed

A web feed is a data format used for serving users with frequently updated content. Content distributors syndicate a web feed, thereby allowing users to subscribe to it. Making a collection of web feeds accessible in one spot is known as aggregation. In the typical scenario of using web feeds, a content provider publishes a feed link on their site which end users can register with an aggregator program (also called a feed reader or a news reader) running on their own machines; doing this is usually as simple as dragging the link from the web browser to the aggregator. When instructed, the aggregator asks all the servers in its feed list, if they have new content; if so, the aggregator either makes a note of the new content or downloads it. Aggregators can be scheduled to check for new content periodically. The kinds of content delivered by a web feed are typically HTML (webpage content) or links to webpages and other kinds of digital media. Often when websites provide web feeds to notify users of content updates, they only include summaries in the web feed rather than the full content itself. Web feeds are operated by many news web sites, weblogs, schools, and podcasters.

[edit] Aggregator

An aggregator or news aggregator or feed reader is client software that uses a web feed to retrieve syndicated web content such as weblogs, podcasts, vlogs, and mainstream mass media websites, or in the case of a search aggregator, a customized set of search results.

[edit] Functions of Aggregator

Aggregators reduce the time and effort needed to regularly check websites for updates, creating a unique information space or "personal newspaper." Once subscribed to a feed, an aggregator is able to check for new content at user-determined intervals and retrieve the update. The content is sometimes described as being "pulled" to the subscriber, as opposed to "pushed" with email or IM. Unlike recipients of some "pushed" information, the aggregator user can easily unsubscribe from a feed. Aggregator features are being built into portal sites such as My Yahoo! and Google; modern web browsers; e-mail programs. The aggregator provides a consolidated view of the content in a single browser display or desktop application. Such applications are also referred to as RSS readers, feed readers, feed aggregators, news readers or search aggregators. The syndicated content an aggregator will retrieve and, interpret is usually supplied in the form of RSS or other XML-formatted data, such as RDF/XML or Atom.

[edit] Keyword Filtering

One of the problems with news aggregators is that the volume of articles can sometimes be overwhelming, especially when the user has many feeds. A concept called Keyword Filtering, can be used to actively include (or discard) articles if they contain certain keywords that the user has defined. For example, if the user is interested in gaming then the keywords Playstation, Nintendo and Xbox can be used to include most relevant articles.

[edit] Categories of Aggregator

[edit] Online version

Online versions of this type of software are websites selling or providing aggregation services for free; these sites are typically provided by ISPs and internet portals. The RSS feeds allow users to check recently changed versions in comparison to previous updates. This allows only 'fresh data' to be viewed, reducing bandwidth demands on the provider's hardware and users. Because the aggregator is online, it can be accessed anywhere by any user who is connected to the internet. More advanced ways of integrating feeds are provided by Ajax desktops, which allow users to aggregate OPML files, email services and documents in Google Docs & Spreadsheets as well as feeds in a single interface. Lately, a large number of online news aggregators made their way on Internet search results. The success of the technology comes from two perspectives: · first - a large amount of online content can be put together in a short period of time and that is what most of search engines can search out as need; · second - the advertising capabilities can be enormous as the ad content can be delivered more targeted groups.

[edit] Computer version

The desktop version of this type of software is designed to satisfy the task of controlling subscriptions and supervising the RSS feeds that the user has selected. The GUI of this type of software is normally a three-panel composition-like communication software like for an e-mail client, but browser versions are available -- normally run on a LAN. Publication is made through web-servers so that global access is possible. Additional facilities may be integrated into aggregators such as audio players, blog editors, internet browsers and e-mail clients.

[edit] How do People Use Feed?

Aggregators are the most common use of feeds, and there are several types. Web aggregators (sometimes called portals) make this view available in a Web page; my Yahoo is a well-known example of this. Aggregators have also been integrated into e-mail clients, users’ desktops, or standalone, dedicated software. Aggregators can offer a variety of special features, including combining several related feeds into a single view, hiding entries that the viewer has already seen, and categorizing feeds and entries. Other uses of feeds include site tracking by search engines and other software; because the feed is machine-readable, the search software doesn’t have to figure out which parts of the site are important and which parts are just the navigation and presentation. One may also choose to allow people to republish his feeds on their Web sites, giving them the ability to represent his content as they require.

[edit] Why Should One Make the Feeds Available?

Viewers will thanks, because they can be acknowledged by the latest information of the site without visit that site. While this seems bad at first glance, it actually improves the site’s visibility; by making it easier for the users to keep up with the site— allowing them to see it, the way they want to — it’s more likely that they’ll know when something that interests them is available on the site. For example, imagine that one company announces a new product or feature every month or two. Without a feed, the viewers have to remember to come to the site and see if they find anything new — if they have time. If the company provides a feed for them, it can point its aggregator or other software at it, and will give them a link and a description of developments at the site almost as soon as it happens. News is similar; because there are so many sources of news on the Web, most of the viewers won’t come to the site every day. By providing a feed, they are in front of them constantly, improving the chances that they’ll click through to an article that catches their eye.

[edit] Choosing Content for Feed

Any list-oriented information on a site that its viewers might be interested in tracking or reusing is a good client for a feed. This can encompass news headlines and press releases, job listings, conference calendars and rankings (like ‘top 10’ lists). For example; News & Announcements - headlines, notices and any list of announcements that are added to over time Document Listings - lists of added or changed pages, so that people don’t need to constantly check for different content Bookmarks and other External links - while most people use RSS for sharing links from their own sites, it’s a natural fit for sharing lists of external links Calendars - listings of past or upcoming events, deadlines or holidays Mailing Lists - to compliment a Web-based archive of public or private e-mail lists Search Results - to let people track changing or new results to their searches Databases - job listings, software releases, etc. While it’s a good start to have a “master feed” for a site that lists recent news and events, don’t stop there. Generally, each area of the site that, features a changing list of information should have a corresponding feed; this allows viewers to precisely target their interests. For example, if the news site has pages for world news, national news, local news, business, sports, etc., there should be a feed for each of these sections. If this site offers a personalized view of data (e.g., people can choose categories of information that will show up on their home page), offer this as a feed, so that the viewers’ Web pages match the content of their feeds. A great example of this is the variety of feeds that Netflix provides; not only can one keep track of new releases, but also personalised reccommendations and even a listing of the movies in his queue. Another good example is Apple’s iTunes Music Store RSS feed generator; one can customize it based on his preferences, and the views it allows match those provided in the Music Store itself. Finally, remember that feeds are just as — if not more — useful on an Intranet as they are on the Internet. Syndication can be a powerful tool for sharing and integrating information inside a company.

[edit] Publishing Feed

There are a number of ways to generate a feed from the content. First of all, explore his content management system - it might already have an option to generate an RSS feed. If that option isn’t available, it has a number of choices;

Self-scraping —The easiest way to publish a feed from the existing content. Scraping tools fetch the web page and pull out the relevant parts for the feed, so that he doesn’t have to change his publishing system. Some use regular expressions or XPath expressions, while others require you to mark up his page with minimal hints (usually using
or tags) that help it decide what should be put into the feed.

Feed Integration — If his site is dynamically generated (using languages like Perl, Python or PHP), it may have a RSS library available, so that he can integrate the feed into his publishing process. Starting with the Feed — Alternatively, he can manage the list-oriented parts of his content in the RSS feed itself, and generate his web pages (as well as other content, like e-mail lists) from the feed. This has the advantage of always having the correct information in the feed, and tools like XSLT make this option easy, especially if, he is starting from scratch. Third Party Scraping — If none of these options work for hi,, some people on the Web will scrape his site for you and make the feed available. Be warned, however, that this is never as reliable or accurate as doing it yourself, because they don’t know the details of the content or his system. Also, using third parties introduces another point of failure in the delivery process; problems there (network, server or business) will cause his feed to be unavailable.

[edit] RSS: How does it Work?

The RSS system to publish articles and news over the web is very simple [12]: a) There are firstly some web pages, one want to be displayed by other websites. This set of pages is the RSS feed. b) An XML file that defines the RSS feed. This file holds URL, title and summary of each page to display. c) A person which want to read the feed on its computer. He (she) uses a RSS reader and just adds the feed with the proper command of the program. d) Or another website that wants to display the feed. It has to load the RSS file from the provider, to extract URL of pages, and display titles and summaries. This may be performed by a php script. e) When someone visits the website of the receiver, the script is launched, it recalls the RSS file from the provider's website and displays a list of news from extracted data. f) By a click on a line of the list, visitors display a page from the provider.

[edit] Structure of a RSS Document

It is an XML file and the global container is a "RSS" tag. The file holds one chanel at least, this is the website that provides the information. The chanel provides some articles or data. These are web pages from the same site, or from other sites.

[edit] Using Platform of RSS

[edit] Using RSS on a desktop

A RSS reader (or aggregator) must be installed first, compatible with the operating system (Windows, Linux, Mac OS, etc...). There is one that is built with XUL (URL of XUL is http://www.xul.fr/en-xml-xul.html). Accessing the content depends upon the reader. This may be accomplished just by a click on an "add" button to get the URL of the RSS feed, and let it added to a list of feeds.

[edit] Using a Feed on a Website

The RSS feed is displayed as a list of titles (and optionally summaries). A click on a title displays the new. Titles are updated automatically. A script in php or other language, builds the list each time the page is displayed by loading the RSS file and extracting the data from it.

[edit] How to Publish News in a RSS Feed?

There are several means to generate RSS feeds. · Using the RSS library of php. A php script will build the XML file from titles and descriptions of pages from the content of a page. · Use a specialized tool to extract the data from a page.

[edit] Tips for Generating Feed

RSS and Atom are easy to work with, but like any new format, one may encounter some problems in using them. This section attempts to address the most common issues that arise when generating a feed. Distinct Entries — Make sure that aggregators can tell his entries apart, by using different identifiers in rdf:about (RSS 1.0), guid (RSS 2.0) and id (Atom). This will save a lot of headaches down the road. Meaningful Metadata — Try to make the metadata useful on its own; for example, if one includes only a short <title>, people may not know what the link is about. By the same token, if he shoves an entire article into <description>, it’ll crowd people’s view of the feed, and they’re less likely to stay interested in what he has to say. Generally, he wants to put enough into the feed to help someone decide whether they should follow the link. Encoding HTML — Although it’s tempting, refrain from including HTML markup in his RSS feed; because he doesn’t know how it will be presented, doing so can prevent your feed from being displayed correctly. If you need to include a a tag in the text of the feed (e.g., the title of an entry is “Ode to <title>”), make sure he escapes ampersands and angle brackets (so that, it would be “Ode to <title>”). XML Entities — Remember that, XML doesn’t predefine entities like HTML does; therefore, he won’t have   © and other common entities available. He can define them in the XML, or alternatively just use a character encoding that makes what he needs available. Character Encoding — Some software generates feeds using Windows character sets, and sometimes mislabels them. The safest thing to do is to encode his feed as UTF-8 and check it by parsing it with an XML parser. Communicating with Viewers — Don’t use entries in your feed to communicate to his users; for example, some feeds have been known to use the <description> to dictate copyright terms. Use the appropriate element or module. Communicating with Machines — Likewise, use the appropriate HTTP status codes if his feed has relocated (usually, 301 Moved Permanently) or is no longer available (410 Gone or 404 Not Found). Making Feed Cache-Friendly — Successful feeds see a fair amount of traffic because, clients poll them often to see if they’ve changed. To support the load, Web Caching can help. Validate — use the Feed Validator to catch any problems in feed; it works with RSS and Atom. Also, don’t just run it once; make sure it is regularly checked, so that it can catch transient errors

[edit] Key Benefits

¨ Keeping up-to-date with the information you want can be a drag. With feeds, one get the latest news and features delivered directly to him as it happens, without clicking from site to site. ¨ You can browse headlines from lots of different sites in one place. ¨ Unlike getting website updates by email, there’s no email address involved with feeds; so there’s no email marketing, no spam, no viruses, no phishing, no identity theft. ¨ If one wanta to stop receiving news, he doesn’t have to send an ‘unsubscribe’ request; one click and the subscription is gone immediately.

[edit]
Notes on used terminology

HTML=Hypertext Markup Language is the authoring software language used on the Internet's World Wide Web. HTML is used for creating World Wide Web pages [13].

XML=XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a W3C initiative that allows information and services to be encoded with meaningful structure and semantics that computers and humans can understand. XML is great for information exchange, and can easily be extended to include user-specified and industry-specified tags [14].


XLU=XUL (XML User Interface Language) is a user interface markup language developed to support Mozilla applications like Mozilla Firefox and Mozilla Thunderbird. Like UIML, it is an application of XML that describes user interfaces. The acronym is pronounced zool, to rhyme with "cool" (see below) [15].


Web Feed=A web feed is an XML-based document which contains a sequence of content items, usually a short informational story or post, possibly with a link to a more extensive story on a web site. Web logs and news website are common sources for web feeds [16].

News Feed=A web feed is an XML-based document which contains a sequence of content items, usually a short informational story or post, possibly with a link to a more extensive story on a web site. Web logs and news website are common sources for web feeds [17].

RDF=Resource Description Framework.The frameworks for RSS version 1. Unfortunately the RSS v1 format is quite different from all other RSS versions [18].


Atom=An XML-based file format. Although Atom is not the same as RSS, it has similar functions. FeedForAll will convert Atom feeds to RSS v2 feeds [19].


Syndication=a group of individuals or companies which has formed a venture to undertake a project that would not be feasible to pursue alone. It usually refers to doing an underwriting or private placement for a public company [20].

Meta Content Framework (MCF)=Meta Content Framework (MCF) was a specification of a format for structuring metadata information about web sites and other data. MCF was developed by Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple Computer between 1995 and 1997. When the research project was discontinued, Guha left Apple for Netscape, where he adapted MCF to use XML and created the first version of the Resource Description Framework (RDF) [21].


Chanel Definition Format (CDF)=Channel Definition Format (CDF) is an XML standard used in conjunction with Microsoft Active Channel and Smart Offline Favorites technologies. Its use is to define a website's content and structure. The standard is somewhat similar to the RSS standard introduced by Netscape. The standard and Active Channel were introduced with the launch of Internet Explorer 4.0, while Smart Offline Favorites was introduced with the launch of version 5.0 [22].


API Feed=Application Programming Interface. The interface (calling conventions) by which an application program accesses operating system and other services. An API is defined at source code level and provides a level of abstraction between the application and the kernel (or other privileged utilities) to ensure the portability of the code [23].


AOL=America Online, or AOL for short, is a corporate online service provider and Internet service provider. Based in Dulles, Virginia, with regional headquarters installations in many cities around the world, it is by far the most successful proprietary online service, with more than 22 million subscribers at one point [24].


FQDN=Fully Qualified Domain Name - the complete address of a site on the Internet [25].


Newsgator=NewsGator Technologies is the world's leading RSS platform company with products that synchronize seamlessly, enabling users to read their RSS feeds [26].

FeedDemon=FeedDemon Simplify the way you read the web! FeedDemon makes RSS news feeds as easy to access as your email.

CNN=CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld (although he currently is not recognized in CNN's official history). It is a division of the Turner Broadcasting System, owned by Time Warner. CNN is widely credited for introducing the concept of 24-hour news coverage. It celebrated its 25th anniversary on June 1, 2005 [27]. Weblogs=A weblog (usually shortened to blog, but occasionally spelled web log) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally in reverse chronological order). Although most early weblogs were manually updated, tools to automate the maintenance of such sites made them accessible to a much larger population, and the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of "blogging"[28].


Podcasters=A podcast is a media file that is distributed by subscription (paid or unpaid) over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. Like 'radio', it can mean both the content and the method of syndication. The latter may also be termed podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster [29].


Blog=Blog is short for weblog. A weblog is a journal (or newsletter) that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. Blogs generally represent the personality of the author or the Web site [30].


Vlog=A vlog is a weblog which uses video as its primary presentation format. It is primarily a medium for distributing video content. Vlog posts are usually accompanied by text, image, and additional meta data to provide a context or overview for the video. Vlogs or videoblogs are created by vloggers or videobloggers, while the act itself is referred to as vlogging or videoblogging [31].


OPML=OPML (Outline Processor Markup Language) is an XML format for outlines. Originally developed by Radio UserLand as a native file format for an outliner application it has since been adopted for other uses, the most common being to exchange lists of RSS feeds between RSS aggregators [32].

Netflix=Netflix is the first and largest major online DVD rental service, offering flat-rate rental-by-mail to customers in the United States. By 2005, the service has attracted over three million subscribers and has a collection of over forty-five thousand titles [33].

XSLT=Extensible stylesheet language transformation (XSLT) is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents. XSLT is designed for use as part of XSL, which is a stylesheet language for XML [34].


References

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[10] http://inamidst.com/rss1.1/ [Online] [30 January 2007]
[11] http://msdn.microsoft.com/xml/rss/sse/ [Online] [30 January 2007]
[12] http://www.xul.fr/en-xml-rss.html [Online] [30 January 2007]
[13] http://www.adult-design-website.com/web_dictionary.htm [Online] [30 January 2007]
[14] http://www.orafaq.com/glossary/faqglosx.htm [Online] [30 January 2007]
[15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XUL [Online] [30 January 2007]
[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_feed [Online] [30 January 2007]
[17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_feed [Online] [30 January 2007]
[18] http://www.feedforall.com/rss-glossary.htm [Online] [30 January 2007]
[19] http://www.feedforall.com/rss-glossary.htm [Online] [30 January 2007]
[20] http://www.going-global.com/equity/finance-glossary.html [Online] [30 January 2007]
[21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta_Content_Framework [Online] [30 January 2007]
[22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_Definition_Format [Online] [30 January 2007]
[23] http://www.data-core.com/glossary-of-terms.htm [Online] [30 January 2007]
[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AOL [Online] [30 January 2007]
[25] http://www.archivemag.co.uk/gloss/F.html [Online] [30 January 2007]
[26] http://www.newsgator.com/home.aspx [Online] [30 January 2007]
[27] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNN [Online] [30 January 2007]
[28] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weblogs [Online] [30 January 2007]
[29] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcasting [Online] [30 January 2007]
[30] http://www.bytowninternet.com/glossary [Online] [30 January 2007]
[31] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlog [Online] [30 January 2007]
[32] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OPML [Online] [30 January 2007]
[33] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netflix [Online] [30 January 2007]
[34] http://www.dmreview.com/resources/glossary.cfm [Online] [30 January 2007]

  • This article has been taken from the preseminar volume of the National Seminar on 'Librarianship in 21st Century held during 16-17 February 2007, Organized PG Department of Library and Information Science, Sambalpur University, Orissa, India with the permission of the seminar organizer.
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