Universal Classification

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Universal Classification (a librarian`s dream) has existed [Shpackov, 1992] since 1980 according to Shpackov.[Shpackov, 1980] UC is model of humankind knowledge or Universal Knowledge Organization for [Debons, 1992]. It was published in 1980 in the USSR firstly[Shpackov, 1980], 15th - [Shpackov, 2005], 17th - in [Shpackov, 2013 в], 18th - [Shpackov, 2013 а]. UC is scheme of names of objects, phenomena, laws, disciplines and practices had been ordered to classificatics [Shpackov, 2013 в] according time, space, matter, origination, universality, specificity and so on base or hierarchic relations their matter forms and attributes of the World. UC has more 100 functional denotations: United Humankind Knowledge, Science Model, Education Model and so on [Shpackov, 2005]. Disciplinary classifications are branches of UC. The Shpackov`s philosophy [Шпаков, 2013 a] is only among a lot of "philosophies" which had permit to make UC on the base of firstly formulated truth axiom [Шпаков, 2013 a, б].

UDC is proposed by its author subject future readers' requests [Shpackov А.А., 2013 в, г] had been ordered without theory, randomly [Dewey, 1894].

Ninety-five percent of UDC classificational units (classificants [Shpackov, 2013 в]) are multi-worded:

000 Prolegomena. Fundamentals of knowledge and culture. Propaedeutics
001 Science and knowledge in general. Organization of intellectual work
002 Documentation. Books. Writings. Authorship
003 Writing systems and scripts
004 Computer science and technology. Computing
004.2 Computer architecture." [Vikipedia, 02.01.2014].

Therefore words of documents and subject requests had being indexed by UDC classificants had become "sentences" (type "003 Writing systems and scripts") and their sentences - "texts" ("001 Science and knowledge in general. Organization of intellectual work"), and nearly 100% of thus indexed documents and thematic queries are distorted.

UDC and others libraries and other types rubrics-classificants orderings are not classification at all, because classification (for example, [Shpackov, 1992, 2013 в]) is tree-liked scheme which shows time, space, matter, structural, generic, universal, specific and other real and true (scientific proved) base relations between World matter forms and their attributes (for example: "...-atoms [Democrit`s ones]-elemental particles-tomicules [former "atoms"]-molecules-substances-bodies-...; [Shpackov, 1992, 2005, 2013 a,б]).

The UDC stub rubrics have not and do not show hierarhic relation between matter forms and their attributes. The UDC classificants objects, phenomena, laws, disciplines and practices mixture are. To request "universal classification definition" Google [2014] retrieved 54,300,000 sources. It is horor but not retrieving. This retrieve is the same as asked theme user to introde into, for example, Russian state library document depository, and tell him: "It is your asked knowledge, please". The engine has retrieved sources UDC instead UC (!?). Google search subject machine instead only operator "and" [Шпаков, 2013 b] had used "and/or/instead...". Creator of the Internet subject search machines like all other empiric developers the engines (MARCs etc) do not understand subject indexing and searches.

Instead of universal classification definition (see above) Wikipedia [2014] says about function, developers and birthday of UDC: "The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is a bibliographic and library classification developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. UDC provides a systematic arrangement of all branches of human knowledge organized as a coherent system in which knowledge fields are related and inter-linked".

UC classificants are only single worded, and UC classificants exactly index knowledge`s and subject requests` words meanings (It is patented). True theory and practices for classifying, subject indexing and searches only requested knowledge are written in [Шпаков, 1992, 2005, 2013 a, б etc].

[edit] The properties of UC and UDC

  1. Basis: UC - The theory and technology classifying [Shpackov, 2013 a]; UDC - Dewey Decimal Classification (In publications about UDC there is no theory of streamlining of classification units (classificants), brought changes, shifts separate classificants and the whole blocks ("tables") in the UDC.).
  2. Applications: UC - Modelling of the world and its parts, formulation of concepts and streamlining of objects, the phenomena, laws, disciplines and practices, knowledge in the UC and in textbooks, training programs, an infrastructure of education, a science, creation of search thematic models (STM), revealing of truths, errors and still > 150 functions; UDC - Streamlining of search thematic signs (STS) or thematic inquiries, documents in funds, formation STM and thematic search instructions had been made from thematic inquiries.
  3. Appearance: UC – Whole three; UDC - Parts in > 50 volumes (Though UDC huge, real request themes very seldom manage to pick up identical to them for sense classificants.) in the STS form.
  4. Streamlining: UC – Hierarchic; UDC – Arbitrary (Randomness has caused problems of UDC and the thematic searches based on it.) [Dewey, 1894].</nowiki>
  5. The form of classificants: UC - Words and adequate to them word combinations of type Universal Classification, a true axiom, etc.; UDC - 5 % of words and word combinations, 95 % of groups of words ("sentences") and groups of groups of words ("texts". STM the documents containing only one word of poly worded classificants receive the same indexes, as STM the data sources including others or all words of the same classificants. Therefore by search in the index of an one word of inquiry documents not the maintenance of this word stand out also. So there is arose an information noise.).
  6. Classificant forms of levels: UC - 1st level – objects, 2nd – the phenomena, 3rd – laws, 4th – disciplines, 5th – practices etc.; UDC - 1st level - disciplines, others levels are mixture of objects, the phenomena, laws, disciplines etc.
  7. Number of branchings at each level: UC - It is not limited; UDC - It is limited (In UDC many classificants, attributed to the given discipline or practice sphere are inherent in other sections of knowledge and abilities. Some thousand disciplines and practices are known. They should be presented on the first level of UDC. But them there are only 10, as others classificants at each UDC levels.) to 10.
  8. Number of pages: UC - 1 (a format A 4, A 3 or A 2); UDC - ~ 15000.
  9. Number classificants: UC - ~ 1100. (1100 classificants 17th version UC [Shpackov, 2013 в] includes.); UDC - ~ 750000 (The number of species of words in UDC is much less, since in poly worded classificants the same words repeat ~ 2600 times.).
  10. Number words and word combinations in classificant: UC – 1; UDC – 7.
  11. Number words: UC - ~ 1100; UDC - 5250000.
  12. Duplication words in identical senses in classificants: UC - Only in the word combinations (~ 50); UDC - ~ 2600 times in all kinds of classificants (It is the main reason of great volume of UDC.).
  13. Number species of words: UC - ~ 1050; UDC - ~ 2000.
  14. Deformed STM and inquiries: UC - <5 %; UDC - > 95 %.
  15. Quantity and kinds of search models: UC - 1100 subject models (SM). 21100 – 1 STM (and a minus 1100 SM); UDC - 37500 SM. 2735000 – 1 STM (and a minus 37500 SM/ Because of poly worded classificants UDC, documents in STM and inquiries in thematic instructions almost all are deformed.).
  16. Average number classificants in STM: UC – 10; UDC -3 (This number proves that fact that on the thematic instructions containing more 3 classificants which are connected by the operator "and", deliveries do not happen. In formated informatively-search engines names of fields is classificants, and system of fields is classification. The number of fields (classificants) is equal, as a rule, to several hundreds. It is not enough of it.).
  17. Number STS at STM: UC - 106 (2n – 1; n = 10 classificants); UDC - 7 (2n – 1; n = 3).
  18. The maximum number classificants in STM and thematic instructions: UC - Theoretically any; UDC - 3 (number used in STM classificants corresponding MARC. Constant "perfection" and reproduction MARCs and after based on MARCs informatively-retrieval bases, systems and networks are caused by insufficient number and unreasonable sequence of fields.).
  19. Representation classificants in STM and thematic instructions: UC - Code numbers of senses of words (mono semantic); UDC - Code numbers of natural words, natural word combinations, groups and groups of groups of natural words (poly semantic).
  20. Search operators: UC - "and" only; UDC - Combinations "and", "or" etc. (Simultaneous use of several operators sharply increases volume and level of information noise in deliveries.).
  21. Pertinence of deliveries: UC - > 95  %; UDC - <1 %.
  22. Local completeness of deliveries: UC - > 95  %; UDC - <1 %.
  23. Ruling of deliveries qualities: UC - Exact and predicted; UDC - Inexact and unpredictable (Because of simultaneous application of several operators.).
  24. Sequence STM in files: UC - Any and changing as required; UDC - Formatted and constant (It is defined by format STM).
  25. Sequence of documents in funds: UC - Any, but a constant; UDC - Changing at changes in UDC (Changes in UDC demand money for shift of units of storage in the funds, which sequence is defined UDC. It is also the additional factor of wear process of objects.), replenishment or write-off of documents of funds etc.
  26. Addition of new classificants (knowledge):UC - stable, UDC - destructed partly or wholly.

It is time to implement UC instead of "UDCs" empirical, mistaken and harmful for intellectual and practical human activities "orderings". © THE FILOSOPHO-EPISTEMOLOGIC (METHODOLOGIC) ANALYSIS OF ERRORS OF THE PRESS RELEASE OF 2012 OF THE NOBEL COMMITTEE (The message is made on /Shpackov, 2013 в /).

Universal Classification has the big role, for example, for examining of the Nobel committee /Press-release, 2012/, which has shown that its authors and co-authors of much have not understood from this that they discussed, have solved and about what have written. SHPAСKOV А.А. The subject is essence of the report Shpackov A.A.

The report at a seminar «NATURAL SCIENCES HISTORY» MSIN of the Moscow State University M.V.Lomonosov of 2/19/2014

To eradicate misunderstanding, to spread understanding and an exact statement of applied or stated judgements, in particular, doctors, medical scientists, teachers and journalists very important for all of us with you as for potential and real patients. In /Press-release, 2012/ it is written that by Nobel Prize award on physiology or medicine it is recognised that /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ have opened possibility of reprogramming of mature cells and their transformation into the unripe ones (The Nobel Prize recognizes two scientists who discovered that mature, specialized cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body). The methodological analysis on a basis /Shpackov, 2013 в/ has shown that actually the Nobel Prize is awarded in area embryology for opening embryogenesis in preparations of artificial zygotes in the form of kernels of a mature cell and cytoplasm oocyte /Gurdon, 1962/ and mature cells with the genes starting embryonic development /Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/.

Following circumstances were the reason of the misunderstanding:

In the Universum of Knowledge the number of antique, medieval and new trues (The true is the knowledge defining rules, methods and technologies of realization by subjects of the purposes 100 % of a prediction, reproduction and management of results of application of this knowledge) and false knowledge constantly increases. Errors is one of the reasons (Other of many bases of misunderstanding are bad information support by thematic inquiries and an arbitrariness in terminology by which effective decisions in /Shpackov, 2013 в, г are found) of a pandemic (Pandemic – disease, the fascinating all population of the Earth) of misunderstanding большей parts of judgements stated and used by people.

Practice while the main well-tried remedy of detection and elimination of many discrepancies, is not in time or cannot, because of growth of complexity of realised projects, to reveal all errors and to find it true alternatives.

Philosophies of old methodologies (philosophical bases; they are knowledge about time, spatial, material, genetic, structural, universal, specific and other relations of a seniority of forms of a matter and their attributes) were mixes of disorder and another person's true knowledge and errors about the world, because of discrepancy and other reasons not developing in a uniform picture of the world.

On such bases materials in textbooks, for example, on philosophy unequal, as in texts on different disciplines. The author of the report spends 500 experiments. They have proved that functions of opening and streamlining of trues, revealings of errors and replacement them with their truths, creation scientific world seeing, correct outlook and the whole picture of the world well carry out initial methodology /Shpackov, 2013 в/ and its derivatives - special knowledge bases /Shpakov, 2013 а, б /, qhich are checked up by a true axiom.

The initial philosophical base /Shpackov, 2013 в/ for the first time includes uncontested philosophy with World Model (UC) and epistemology. Correct methodology are ordered according to System of Curriculums (UC) to the seniority and expressed by adequate words concerning concrete disciplines truths. As the given disciplines are younger the methodologies of their knowledge bases there can not be their data in their methodologies, according to an interdiction of the law of unidirectional universality which says that younger forms of a matter and their attributes cannot be at seniors. Therefore laws of classical mechanics do not operate concerning quantum objects, and the decision of the Nobel committee /Press release, 2012/ is not capable to transform embryologic opening of /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ into physiological or medical knowledge.

At each discipline is own methodology. But it does not mean that for all not philosophical divisions of science and practice spheres it is necessary to write textbooks on methodology. It is not necessary to do as methodology of quantum physics is already existing in form of the initial methodology, chemistry – initial methodology and the quantum physics improved on its basis, biology – initial methodology and updated the quantum physics with chemistry etc.

Nevertheless, G.P.Schedrovitsky's fund, Novikov A.M., Novikov D.A. and many other “scientists”, who does not know, understand or ignores the described relations of disciplines and their methodologies, the set subject methodologies is let out. In these books there is a mix of true and erroneous knowledge that gives rise to misunderstanding at readers. These works duplicate the known data that is information noise, waste of time, work, a paper, a place on regiments of libraries and computers, money. For a society as a whole it is uneconomically. Updated methodology allow to understand as much as possible effectively, to take from the facts more full, to remember, precisely to interpret, more exhaustively to state, expect, order and operate true knowledge, to apply abilities their and caused by them skills, to find to errors correct alternatives, to learn that can and cannot be, be guided in Knowledge Universe, involve given by the nature to all mentally normal people with higher education intuition, intelligence, talent, the genius and other abilities, to find pleasure from education, to feel itself as persons.

Correction of methodological myths important also for understanding priority, ethics and competence of authors and co-authors /Press release, 2012/ which in several lines of the press release have managed to do 17 methodological discrepancies.

  • First. The Nobel Prize is appropriated not in that discipline of a science in which winners worked.

Subjects of studying at /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ there were embriogenic objects which, as it is known, concern to embryology.

It was confirmed also with names of magazines in which articles are published - Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology /Gurdon, 1962/ and Cell /Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/. Any editor of reviewed physiological or medical magazines could not print these articles because has no experts in area embriology. On an accessory to embryology new trues /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ specifies also the Determinant of the Accessory of Knowledge (UC). The accessory of knowledge to defined and only to one discipline is caused by the law of uniqueness of forms of a matter and their attributes. This law says that objects, the phenomena, laws, means of researches and knowledge given rise by them belong and can be carried only to one discipline or practice. The mentioning of 50 professors in the press release is made because confidence at authors and co-authors of this document in a correct choice of area of opening were not. Collectiveness in case of discrepancy distributes responsibility on all professors, i.e. on anybody personally. It is caused by that on World Model (UC) the collective is younger its separate persons. Therefore responsibility of scientific community cannot be carried to one of 50 professors as laws of classical mechanics (younger determinants) concerning quantum structures (the senior objects) do not operate, for example. Errors remain myths irrespective of who has made them, as long they existed, as it is a lot of people and with what authorities considered errors as trues.

  • Secondly, the Nobel Prize on physiology or medicine («The Nobel Assembly, consisting of 50 professors at Karolinska Institutet, awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine» /Press release, 2012/. The confidence that the great number of professors cannot be mistaken is too error) has given birth to uncertainty, misunderstanding and consequently a question: «The Award is given on physiology or on medicine?».

Right answer on this question cannot be, since words "physiology" and "medicine" are given in the press release with the "or" (or) which gives rise to uncertainty.

  • Thirdly. Even if one thinks that "or" is "and", mathematical discrepancy since opening is made in one discipline turns out, and the award have carried to two.

As opening is one the mathematics specifies that can be only one discipline to which it is possible to carry an innovation.

  • Fourthly. It is inadmissible have identified a birth and application of knowledge.

The uniqueness law dictates an accessory of concrete knowledge to one discipline, and the law of a unidirectness of universality causes application of the given knowledge in all younger disciplines of a science and of spheres of practice. If to carry opening to the disciplines using knowledge it is possible to appropriate, for example, to the tailor a rank of the metallurgist for application of metal scissors by it, needles, machines etc. It is a nonsense. The same nonsense is opening /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ reference to physiology and-or medicine.

  • Fifthly. The sphere of use of new knowledge /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ is made illegally narrower only by physiology and-or medicine.

According to the Determinant of Spheres of Use of Trues and Abilities (UC) the scope of this opening totals all disciplines and practices, including physiology and the medicine standing above and to the right of embryology in UC - hundreds.

  • Sixthly. One of aspects of opening /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ is incorrectly qualified named reprogramming of cells.

Reprogramming is reorganization of the program which gives other product /Shpackov, 1980, 1992, 2005, 2013 в/. Under the influence of oocyte cytoplasm /Gurdon, 1962/ or genes /Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ was it is artificial the unique and not changed genetic program natural embryogenic, caused by genome mature cells which is received by them in not changed kind from a zygote-ancestor is started. Its product for health care are stem cells in both cases, as at natural embryogenes. So reprogramming genom was not.

  • Seventhly. Incorrectly write that the adult cage itself begins embryogenes.

Artificial embryogenes has been initiated by experimenters.

  • Eighth. The statement that /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ is unauthorized have opened in mature cages ability «to develop back» (Would it ever be possible to turn an intact cell back into a pluripotent stem cell? John B. Gurdon discovered in 1962 that the specialization of cells is reversible. The discoveries of Gurdon and Yamanaka have shown that specialized cells can turn back the developmental clock under certain circumstances. Although their genome undergoes modifications during development, these modifications are not irreversible/Press release, 2012/.).

Progress is «movement for which transition from the lowest to the higher is characteristic, from less perfect to more perfect», and for recourse - transition from the higher to the lowest, from more to less perfect /СЭС, 1987/. Progress and recourse in one object are excluded each other, since on sets of physical, chemical and other phenomena and laws by them different, irreversible, contradirected, incompatible and impossible. The mature cells is more younger its ancestor – zygotes. Therefore the mature cells itself cannot become a zygote (the senior object) according to an interdiction of the law of an one-orientation of universality which asserts that younger forms of a matter and their attributes cannot be at seniors. Regressive development in the nature does not exist.

  • Ninth. The metaphor with transformation of a frog into a zygote is erroneous (“Frogs jump backwards in development”).

In experiences /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ took a cell, instead of all frog. Animals cannot turn to a zygote. As have proved /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ separate cells are capable do it only. Scientific reality is that fact that in the nature there is a law of preservation of parts in their whole. For example, oxygen remains oxygen in molecules of oxygen, water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, at ocean and in space. It is a universality basis. In the form of this law the nature has presented to organisms one more, except cellular division, possibility to reproduce himself found /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/in the way. Whether in shape opening /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ the law of preservation of parts in whole specifies a true way to immortality?

  • Tenth. It is incorrectly declared that winners worked with intact cells («The Nobel Prize recognizes two scientists who discovered that mature, specialized cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body». The discovery that intact, mature cells could be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells was published in 2006 /Press release, 2012/).

In experiences there were preparations of cells. Eleventh. Illegally affirms that these preparations polypotent. They such are not, as are not considered polypotent a zygote and cells of morule, blastule, gastrule etc.; polypotentness appears at stem cells. Stem cells turn to specialized cells and tissues, instead of their predecessors.

  • Twelfth. Wrongly affirms that classical representation of a science about developmentis denied («These groundbreaking discoveries have completely changed our view of the development and cellular specialization. Their findings have revolutionized our understanding of how cells and organisms develop. We have obtained a new view of the development of cells and organisms»).

As have shown /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/, development of cellular preparations followed the normal way – from less to more specialized cells.

  • Thirteenth. The question is illegal: whether «the mature cell can turn to a stem cells?».
The answer one: "Can not".
  • Fourteenth. It is incorrectly passed that /Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ have found out earlier unknown genes of artificial start of embryogenesis.
  • Fifteenth. There is no the fact specifying that researches /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ and their followers V.P.Demihov's direction is continued. It the founder of changes of biomaterials inside and between organisms /СЭС, 1987/ - the biological engineering, blood transfusion was one of which kinds before V.P.Demihova's experiences.
  • Sixteenth. It is lost unreasonably the fact that /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ have confirmed the validity of the law of preservation of parts in their whole, on which basis the first Model of the World (UC) has been constructed already /Shpackov, 1980/.

This law is the most senior and main reason of start of development ad ovo preparations of cells.

  • Seventeenth. Openings /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ surprising for those who uses old methodologies and does not know, does not understand or ignores true philosophical bases /Shpackov, 2013 в/.

Openings of the artificial beginning embryogenesis /Gurdon, 1962; Takahashi, Yamanaka, 2006/ for the author of this report are logic, they are predicted and expected, in particular, on the basis of the preservation law. Removal of discrepancies /Press release, 2012/, their replacement by correct and clear truths, informing on it of the international public are sharply actual.

[edit] References

  • Shpackov A.A. New medicine methodology. 1. The analysis of essence of some indicators of cardiovascular system. / The Russian medical magazine. Moscow: Medicine, № 2, with. 46-56, classification 1 on a spread, 2013 a.
  • Shpackov A.A. New medicine methodology. 2. A matrix of some indicators of cardiovascular system; practice. / The Russian medical magazine. Moscow: Medicine, № 3, s.52-57, 2013 б.
  • Shpackov A.A. Initial methodology (epystemology and philosophy with World Model). Moscow: Informot, 458 with., 2013 в.
  • Press release the Nobel Prize Committee. www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medidcine/laureates/2012-/press./html#, 2012.
  • Gurdon, J.B. The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 10:622-640, 1962.
  • Takahashi, K., Yamanaka, S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell. 126:663-676, 2006.
  • СЭС - The Soviet encyclopaedic dictionary. Moscow: the Soviet encyclopaedia, 1599 with., 1987.
  • Shpackov A.A. Information retrieval system "Biomed". Moscow: Ministry of Health of RSFSR, the prospectus of exhibit VDNCh the USSR and exhibitions "STI-80" of format А3; on a turn – World Model, 1980.
  • Shpackov A.A. The nature and boundaries of information science (s). / J. Amer. Soc. Inform. Sci., vol.43, no.10, p.678-681, and the Universal Classification scheme, 1992.
  • Shpackov A.A. Signal, sense, the information, knowledge, true. / P Sghpackov hilosophy and the civilisation future. Volume 3. Moscow: Modern writing-books, s.608-609, 2005.
  • Debons,A. J.Am.Soc.Inf.Sci., v. 43, no. 10, 1992.
  • Dewey, M. Abridged decimal classification and relative index for libraries, clippings, notes, etc. Boston: Library Bureau, 192 pp., 1894
  • Google. Universal classification definition. / https://www.google.com/search?q=universal+classification&rlz=1C1AVSJ_enRU471RU471&oq=universal+classification&aqs=chrome.2.69i59l3j69i60l3.13492j0j8&sourceid=chrome&espv=210&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8#es_sm=93&espv=210&q=universal+classification+definition
  • Wikipedia. UDC. / https:/www.google.com/search?q=universal+classification&rlz=1C1AVSJ_enRU471RU471&oq=universal+classification&aqs=chrome.2.69i59l3j69i60l3.13492j0j8&sourceid=chrome&espv=210&es / 02.01.2014
  • Shpackov А.А. Карта Знаний (Knowledge map). Москва: Информот, цветной плакат формата А 3 с текстом на обороте, 2005
  • Шпаков Александр Андреевич [Shpackov Alexander Andreevich], em: shpackov@rambler.ru
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